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Planning on having a vacation with your family? Do you want to have a hassle free option for you to set up your travel plans and choose the best travel destinations around the world? No worries. The easiest and the most convenient way to book your ticket and help you with your travel itinerary are through the internet. You can find so many websites about travel guides and tours that would certainly help you with your trip.

You can find online travel agencies that can be helpful in giving you information about great destinations around the world without going to any travel agency office or talk to a travel agent. These online travel agencies will surely give you all the comforts to set up your destination plans in front of your laptop or PC. When you choose your online travel destination, you have to remember to find the best deal that allows you to choose your own destination and at the same time gives you all the comfort and convenience.

The benefits and advantage of online travel agencies is having low cost and convenience. Online travel agencies is also available at any time, as long as you go online, you have all the time for bookings that you need to complete. With all these online agencies, you have all the option to choose the best deal and the right budget for you. It also gives the comfort in the country of destination; you are provided with the transfer to your hotel and agencies are the one taking care of any problems you might encounter.

Also, the advantage of choosing online agencies is your control on your decision without influences or pressure from travel agents. If you visit a travel agency office, many travel agents have the same tone like a salesman; remember that most of these people are working under a commission program. So basically, you might be pressured by their sales pitch and book a trip without checking other good options and much less affordable.

Usually one of the concerns for online travel agencies is the security of paying large amounts of money online. Online security is a major issue for any online business, so it is very important to make sure and choose a travel agency online with a good reputation by checking customer reviews and feedback. Not all agencies can be relied on because some of them might disappear with your money. There are so many scams over the internet nowadays, so b very careful. It is better to be safe than sorry.

So overall, make sure to choose the legitimate and quality online travel agencies to avoid scams. Always seek some tips and assistance if you’re not sure about the online travel agency. Most importantly plan your trip carefully to avoid any hassles or problems. Good luck and enjoy your vacation.

Vehicle History Overview

  • They don’t make them like they used to.

The First Cars

  • The first motor cars were nothing more than a buggy and engine (Generally repaired by blacksmiths and carpenters. These cars were very expensive, which only the wealthy could afford)
  • Model T was the first car mass production on an assembly line in 1908 (Ford’s Vision was to produce an affordable car the average person could purchase)
  • Model T’s came in black only to keep the costs down. (The price came down once the assembly line was streamlined, but in 1908, the cost for a Model T started at $825. By 1913 the cost of the car reduced to $550)

Cars in the 1960s

Cars were made the same basic way up through the 60s

  • Body Over Frame
  • Rear Wheel Drive (Same concept, but the cars were very big, bulky, and heavy)

Except people in the 60s wanted SPEED! They achieved this with Big Block Motors, which created a lot of Horsepower. (The Birth of Hotrods, Rat Fink, Flames, and Pin Striping).

Cars in the 1970s

  • The government place strict fuel economy and emissions control laws
  • Customers demanded cars with increased fuel economy
  • New laws and customer demands started the automotive explosion of engineering ideas and changes in the automotive industry

Changes to comply with Demands and Laws

  • Smaller bodied cars and smaller engines
  • Aerodynamics (Increase Fuel Mileage)
  • Lighter cars by using different materials and designs
  • More work-hardened areas created during formation of panel (Body Lines)
  • Safety

Construction of Interstate Highways + Higher Speed Limits + More High Performance Cars = Accidents and More

Deaths from Auto Accidents

Federal Laws were passed to regulate safety. These laws included:

  • Installation of seatbelts
  • Safety glass windshields
  • Head restraints
  • In 1979, the first driver side airbag was introduced
  • Airbags are mandatory in motor cars produced after 1990
  • Unibody Torque Boxes: Allow controlled twisting and crushing
  • Crush Zones: Made to collapse during collision (To act as an absorber, absorbing the impact)

Modern Day Cars

  • Carbon Fiber Parts
  • Aluminum Parts
  • More Plastic Parts
  • High Strength Steel
  • Boron Steel
  • Unibody Construction
  • Space Frame Construction
  • Computer
  • Hybrid Cars

Now they even have cars that will tell you when you’re lost, where to turn, Parallel Park for you.

Conclusion

While the modern day cars appear to be made cheap and unsafe, they are actually designed to crush or collapse, while transferring the energy around the stronger passenger compartment to protect the passengers from injury.

There is considerably more damage to modern day cars during a collision than the older vehicles, which gives the perception that “they don’t make them like they used to”. However, in reality the cars are taking the impact instead of the passengers.

The lesson was designed to give you a little history, but to also emphasize that just a hammer, dolly and a few wrenches are not going to repair today’s cars. We need highly trained collision repair and automotive technicians to repair today’s vehicles.

 

Together with the advancement of science and technology, technological innovations grew along with it, resulting to the emergence of new equipment and gadgets. No matter how big or small your company is, technology brings both intangible and tangible benefits to become cost efficient and to meet the growing demands and needs of customers. Technological innovations affect corporate efficiency, culture and relationship among employees, clients, suppliers and customers. The type and quality of technology used affect the security of confidential business information.

Due to the burden brought by administrative tasks, like inventory, bookkeeping and records keeping, both big and small companies rely on computers to do their administrative works. The birth of Internet and online social networking sites tremendously decreased the costs of business operations. It also makes it easier for companies to use the Six Sigma management methodologies. Some firms shifted to outsourcing instead of hiring their own personnel due to the low costs associated with it. Because of the huge impact of technological innovations to companies, it is impossible for them to live with it.

Commonly used high technology equipment:

  • Computers
  • Photocopier
  • Telephone
  • Computer printer
  • Internet
  • Paper shredder
  • Multimedia projector
  • Touch screen monitors
  • Computer mouse
  • Laptop computers

Advantages of Technology to Business:

  • Customer Relations. Technology affects the way companies communicate and establish relations with their clients. In a fast moving and business environment, it is vital for them to interact with clients regularly and quickly to gain their trust and to obtain customer loyalty. With the use of Internet and online social networks, firms interact with consumers and answer all their queries about the product. Establishing effective communication with customers not only creates rapport with them, but it also creates strong public image. It allows business enterprises to reduce and to cut carbon dioxide emissions.
  • Business Operations. With the use of technological innovations, business owners and entrepreneur understand their cash flow better, how to manage their storage costs well and enables you to save time and money.
  • Corporate Culture. Technology lets employees communicate and interact with other employees in other countries. It establishes clique and prevents social tensions from arising.
  • Security. Modern security equipment enables companies to protect their financial data, confidential business information and decisions.
  • Research Opportunities. It provides a venue to conduct studies to keep themselves ahead of competitors. It allows companies to virtually travel into unknown markets.
  • Corporate Reports. With technology, business enterprises communicate effectively with their branch offices to deliver quality financial and operational reports.
  • Industrial Productivity. Through the use of business software programs or software packages, it automated traditional manufacturing process, reduces labor costs and enhances manufacturing productivity. It enables companies to increase efficiency and production output.
  • Business mobility. Technological innovations improved companies’ sales, services, shorted lead time on receiving and delivering goods and services. Enables them to penetrate multiple markets at least costs.
  • Research capacity. It enables them to conduct studies on various companies to gain knowledge on the new trends in the market and way on avoiding them.

 

Any business owner that is experiencing financial difficulties from the recession, or anything else for that matter, should definitely consider adverting with flyers. You can benefit from this type of advertising in several ways. Here are seven of them to help you determine if this method of advertising is right for you.

1) Instant results. There’s no waiting for your advertisement to be published when advertising flyers person-to-person. Your sales will increase the same day as you launch your advertising campaign. This is the number one reason why every business owner should be thinking about using this form of advertising right now.

2) Low priced. No matter how large of an advertising budget you have to work with, this form of advertising allows you to promote your products and services within your means. Advertising flyers person-to-person is the cheapest form of flyer advertising. You can design and print your flyers in house to save hundreds of dollars on unnecessary costs.

3) Quite simple. Other forms of advertising require months of planning and preparation. This strategy eliminates the timely process of searching for professional graphic designers and copywriters. Simply put, you can launch your advertising campaign the same day.

4) Consumer feedback. Talking to people face-to-face off the streets allows you to ask serious questions about your business without having to hire an overpriced survey service. You can find out what people really think of your products and services, allowing you to immediately correct any serious issues you may have. On the other hand, this also gives you the opportunity to inform people of all the positive changes and improvements you have made.

5) Viral injectors. Advertising flyers person-to-person on the streets is proven to generate word of mouth buzz and referrals. In fact, a struggling business can be back on the road map to success within weeks of launching the first promotion. There’s even the possibility of your promotion being picked up by your local newspaper.

6) Moral boosters. Advertising flyers on the streets to people is a great way to liven up the spirits of your team when times are hectic. The positive energy from your promotion will bolster the performance of your staff and spread to your customers like a wildfire. Your team will feel a since of pride as people start to complement them about the positive changes you made in your business.

7) Highly Effective. Since your talking to people in person, response rates can be as high as 50% in comparison to other forms of advertising. In addition, you’re more likely to convince consumers into purchasing whatever it is you have to sell with this strategy. The results are always phenomenal considering the price and time it takes to advertise flyers.

Advertising flyers person-to-person is just one of the ways you can recession proof your business while making a sizable income in the process. Think about using this strategy to sell your products and services if your advertising budget is small, and you need a way to generate sales quickly.

Space… The final frontier…

It is also a land loaded with floating metal objects that rotate the planet and beam signals back to our gadgets. One of these floating metal objects is a satellite designed to push radio programming to our receivers. In the United States the only brand on the market is Sirius XM satellite radio.

Satellite radio is filled with hundreds of stations with programming that varies from hit to obscure music; talk programming from conservative views to home design tips to Howard Stern. Essentially it is a medium that offers something for everyone. This is one of the reasons it is becoming a very popular option for satellite radio advertising.

A common misconception about the medium is that it is “commercial free”. While the music stations do remain free of any satellite radio advertising, the talk stations do not. They have several commercial breaks per hour just as any talk show on AM or FM radio would. The shows that offer advertising options are quite diverse and offer advertisers a way to micro-target an audience with a specific interest.

What does satellite radio advertising cost? The answer to that question will vary depending on the station you want to advertise on. Some of the more nich’ formats with a lower audience can fall as low as fifty dollars per commercial, while the top stations such as Howard Stern may cost hundreds of dollars per airing because the reach of a station like this is much greater.

Satellite radio offers smaller and medium-sized companies that do not have a large budget the opportunity to reach a national audience.

This is something new, because the price point to reach a national audience on national TV or a syndicated radio show can be far to cost prohibitive for most small and medium sized businesses. With a starting budget of around 5k, almost any business can have their message broadcast to the nation through satellite radio advertising. The message can also be targeted to a very specific group of people based on the programming that the radio commercial airs on. Programming targets range from pet lovers to cigar enthusiasts to new moms and everything in between.

What was once the work of science fiction, is now a medium that puts another tool in the arsenal of small business when they want to get an effective message out to the masses on a restricted budget.

In case one didn’t know it, the actions taken on a contract are all tied to the “execution” date, also known as the “date of final acceptance” (Texas Association of REALTORS® (TAR) form 1601, pg.7). This means that all addendums or agreements with specified time limits must be met within the time specified on a calendar day basis with day one beginning the day after the executed date.

The most important time frame that the home buyer or home seller should keep in mind is the option period, if one has been negotiated. For simplicity sake, let’s use a hypothetical contract signed by all parties and executed on December 31st with a ten day option period. This means that day one of the option period begins on January 1st and ends at midnight on January 10th. This option period is often used for inspections of a property, insurance quotes, and repair negotiations. Once this hurdle is jumped, appraisal and survey follow to complete the closing process.

When dealing with home owner’s association documents, surveys, and third party financing approvals, the same rule applies. If the addendums specify a certain number of days, one must be sure to comply with the deadlines or be in default – which is never a good thing.

Remember, the clock starts ticking on the date of final acceptance, also known as the execution date or the effective date. Professional REALTORS® should always be aware of time constraints within your contract, and need to remind you of the date as a buyer or seller. If not, be sure to ask your REALTOR® what the time frame is.

 

Want to know some interesting facts about culinary arts? Well, as most people know, the culinary arts revolve around culinary arts and food, and they include everything from restaurant management and hospitality management to food science and food safety. Someone who works in any of these areas is called a “culinarian,” and that includes everyone from food service workers to creators of the fantastic pastry arts.

Historical Facts

The history of the culinary arts is a rather long one. Some historical facts about culinary include these interesting facts about culinary arts. In the U.S., the first culinary school opened in the 1800s, but culinary arts were well under way in Europe from Medieval times onward. There were many cookbooks published or handwritten from Medieval times to more modern history, and Le Cordon Blue Schools, one of the most renowned in the world, opened in Paris in 1895, after a long history of collecting recipes and publishing a food recipe magazine. Cookbooks and cooking schools have continued to be popular into modern times, and there is a surge of interest in the culinary arts right now.

Cooking Schools

One of the best places to learn interesting facts about culinary arts include some of the nation’s best cooking schools. They can prepare a student for a career in food and beverage, as everything from a chef to a practitioner of pastry arts, and they offer many different opportunities for learning, as well. They offer classes to the home cook to make them more accomplished, and offer classes online and in the evenings, so students can still hold down a job while they learn a new career. Some of the most well-known and respected cooking schools include Le Cordon Blue Schools, the Culinary Institute of America, (CIA), and Johnson & Wales University.

A Career in Culinary Arts

If you want to learn more interesting facts about culinary arts, try watching the Food Network, or attending a class at your local cooking school or community college. They offer instruction at every level, and you can begin to see if a career in culinary arts is really what you’re looking for. Remember, a career in this area can be much more than a career in food and beverage. Today, America’s top chefs host their own cooking shows, write cookbooks, and even travel the world in search of culinary adventures. They create reality TV shows, endorse their own lines of cookware, and far beyond, so today, a career in culinary can mean more than working with and loving food, it can mean fame and fortune, too.

A Recipe for Success

What do you need for a career in the kitchen? A great love of food helps, and of course, you should like to cook! A good palate for tastes and textures is important to the budding chef, and if you want a career in pastry, you should love to bake and understand the science of cooking. A good cooking school specializing in the culinary arts can help you discover just what type of cooking and cuisine suits you best, so choose your school wisely. A career in the culinary arena can lead to great success, and for many chefs, that culminates in opening their own signature restaurants. Are you the next Wolfgang Puck or Mario Batali? You’ll never know unless you check out the culinary arts as a step on your career ladder.

 

Indian Weddings don’t symbolize mere marriage; the nuptial bond symbolizes loads of commitments, shared responsibilities and promises for life. The weddings in India are full of vivid events and rituals that continue for several days. Around 300-1000 people attend the weddings and the scale of wedding is thus so large that it seems that not just the two individuals get married but the two families. A majority of the wedding customs and traditions are similar in Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs and Jains.

The prospective groom’s parents approach the bride’s parents to ask them for the hand of their daughter to get her married to their son. If the bride’s parents agree to the proposal, the parents invite the Hindu priest to match the horoscopes and if the horoscopes agree, they ask the pundit to tell them a suitable date for the marriage.

The parents of the bride visit the groom’s house to formalize the wedding and perform the Tilak Ceremony. On the following day “Byaha Hatth” ceremony takes place and the unmarried girls apply a paste of turmeric, sandalwood and rose water to bride and groom at their homes. Till the wedding day, both the bride and the groom are not allowed to come out of their homes.

On the wedding day, the bride wears a red colored sari and the groom wears a sherwani companied with a pyjama or salwar and wraps angrakha around his neck. The groom and male members of the groom’s family wear pink turbans.

The groom rides on a horse and is accompanied by his baraat (procession) to the venue of the wedding. They receive a warm welcome from the bride’s side. The bride is escorted to the wedding hall by her close friends or sisters. Then both the bride and the groom perform garland ceremony and head on towards the wedding feast.

As per the timing suggested by the Hindu purohit, the Circumambulation of fire is done to finalize the marriage and then the bride’s parents do the kanyadan. The bride departs with the groom and is welcomed by her mother-in law holding a thali of Aarti. Several customary games are played during the evening hour. On the next day at night, a reception party is held by Groom’s side and a large number of guests are again invited to attend the feast.

The wedding is said to be officially over with the Reception party but after the wedding, the couple is invited for lunch/dinner at the relatives’ homes for the first time after their marriage. This is done to open their way for visiting the relative’s homes.

The KWP2000 protocol has become a de facto standard in automotive diagnostic applications. It is standardized as ISO 14230-3. KWP2000 describes the implementation of various diagnostic services you can accethrough the protocol. You can run KWP2000 on several transport layers such as K-line (serial) or CAN.

Transport Protocol

As KWP2000 uses messages of variable byte lengths, a transport protocol is necessary on layers with only a well defined (short) message length, such as CAN. The transport protocol splits a long KWP2000 message into pieces that can be transferred over the network and reassembles those pieces to recover the original message.

KWP2000 runs on CAN on various transport protocols such as ISO TP (ISO 15765-2), TP 1.6, TP 2. 0 (Volkswagen), and SAE J1939-21. For KWP2000, the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports only the ISO TP (standardized in ISO 15765-2) and manufacturer-specific VW TP 2.0 transport protocols.

Diagnostic Services

The diagnostic services available in KWP2000 are grouped in functional units and identified by a one-byte code (ServiceId). The standard does not define all codes; for some codes, the standard refers to other SAE or ISO standards, and some are reserved for manufacturer-specific extensions. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports the following services:

• Diagnostic Management

• Data Transmission

• Stored Data Transmission (Diagnostic Trouble Codes)

• Input/Output Control

• Remote Activation of Routine

Upload/Download and Extended services are not part of the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set.

Diagnostic Service Format

Diagnostic services have a common message format. Each service defines a Request Message, Positive Response Message, and Negative Response Message. The Request Message has the ServiceId as first byte, plus additional service-defined parameters. The Positive Response Message has an echo of the ServiceId with bit 6 set as first byte, plus the service-defined response parameters.

The Negative Response Message is usually a three-byte message: it has the Negative Response ServiceId as first byte, an echo of the original ServiceId as second byte, and a ResponseCode as third byte. The only exception to this format is the negative response to an EscapeCode service; here, the third byte is an echo of the user-defined service code, and the fourth byte is the ResponseCode. The KWP2000 standard partly defines the ResponseCodes, but there is room left for manufacturer-specific extensions. For some of the ResponseCodes, KWP2000 defines an error handling procedure. Because both positive and negative responses have an echo of the requested service, you can always assign the responses to their corresponding request.

Connect/Disconnect

KWP2000 expects a diagnostic session to be started with StartDiagnosticSession and terminated with StopDiagnosticSession. However, StartDiagnosticSession has a DiagnosticMode parameter that determines the diagnostic session type. Depending on this type, the ECU may or may not support other diagnostic services, or operate in a restricted mode where not all ECU functions are available. The DiagnosticMode parameter values are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard. For a diagnostic session to remain active, it must execute the TesterPresent service periodically if no other service is executed. If the TesterPresent service is missing for a certain period of time, the diagnostic session is terminated, and the ECU returns to normal operation mode.

GetSeed/Unlock

A GetSeed/Unlock mechanism may protect some diagnostic services. However, the applicable services are left to the manufacturer and not defined by the standard.You can execute the GetSeed/Unlock mechanism through the SecurityAccess service. This defines several levels of security, but the manufacturer assigns these levels to certain services.

Read/Write Memory

Use the Read/WriteMemoryByAddress services to upload/download data to certain memory addresses on an ECU. The address is a three-byte quantity in KWP2000 and a five-byte quantity (four-byte address and one-byte extension) in the calibration protocols. The Upload/Download functional unit services are highly manufacturer specific and not well defined in the standard, so they are not a good way to provide a general upload/download mechanism.

Measurements

Use the ReadDataByLocal/CommonIdentifier services to access ECU data in a way similar to a DAQ list. A Local/CommonIdentifier describes a list of ECU quantities that are then transferred from the ECU to the tester. The transfer can be either single value or periodic, with a slow, medium, or fast transfer rate. The transfer rates are manufacturer specific; you can use the SetDataRates service to set them, but this setting is manufacturer specific. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports single-point measurements.

Diagnostic Trouble Codes

A major diagnostic feature is the readout of Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs). KWP2000 defines several services that access DTCs based on their group or status.

Input/Output Control

KWP2000 defines services to modify internal or external ECU signals. One example is redirecting ECU sensor inputs to stimulated signals. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard.

Remote Activation of a Routine

These services are similar to the ActionService and DiagService functions of CCP. You can invoke an ECU internal routine identified by a Local/CommonIdentifier or a memory address. Contrary to the CCP case, execution of this routine can be asynchronous; that is, there are separate Start, Stop, and RequestResult services. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard.

External References

For more information about the KWP2000 Standard, refer to the ISO 14230-3 standard.