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Some people think that automotive fasteners are only useful in automotive industries because of its name. However, such items are also depended upon by aerospace, petrochemical, waste processing, pharmaceutical and even machine industries. Typically, a fastener is derived from materials most specifically metals like iron, aluminum, brass, nickel and stainless steel.

Automotive fasteners are defined as mechanical components in order to hold two or more structures together. They are classified further as nuts, screw, rivets, studs, pins and tie rods. Each of these classifications has its own distinct characteristics. More facts on some of these types of fasteners are discussed in detail through the succeeding paragraphs.

Automotive nuts

Nuts are examples of fasteners used in order to secure a bolt or screw to a certain surface. Depending on the application where it is to be utilized, the nut is classified. Some examples of nuts are also classified depending on its shape and design. In this regard, subcategories include hex nuts, wing nuts, cap nuts and t-nuts. Lug nuts, plate nuts, jam nuts and self-locking nuts are also popular in a lot of automotive industries.

Automotive bolts

These are generally classified as threaded automotive fasteners with threaded pins or rods. Typically, it is easy to detect a bolt because it contains a head on one of its end. Bolts are offered in the market in different sizes and may only be placed depending on the hole’s size where it is to be used. The most common types of automotive bolts are wheel bolts, U-bolts, mounting plate bolts and hub bolts. Rod bolts, lug bolts and radiator bolts are also included in the list.

Automotive washers

Just by hearing the term washer, one may not be able to comprehend well about why it is classified under the list of auto fasteners. Well, automotive washers are those that have small and flat dishes containing holes on its center and are used to hold a load of automotive bolts. It is often found below the nut or the joint in order to prevent leakage as well as distribute pressure. Common examples of automotive washers are bolt lock, hardened, cylinder head, lug nut and radiator washers.

Other types of fasteners

Aside from the three types elaborated above, there are yet other forms of fasteners offered in the market. Studs, for instance are those that have double-ended features and are fastened at both ends. These fasteners are classified according to where they are used and the material utilized to make up such industrial products. Other automotive fasteners are rivets, screws and tie rods.

Do you love chocolate? Do you also love fine foods, baking and cooking? If you are only looking to improve your chocolate skills by making dishes at home, you can start with the many cookbooks on the subject. To be a simple chocolate maker, you can start at home, go to a continuing education class, or attend some classes at a local junior college. But if you are looking to really cash in on your love of chocolate, you may want to become a Chocolatier.

If you are more serious about the art of making chocolate, you can attend a culinary school to learn the trade. Learning how to transform the raw cocoa bean into chocolate is usually the first step of a chocolatier. Chocolate makers take chocolate in its original form, the bean, and then transform it into delicious candies and baked goods. Chocolates will range in sweetness, butter fat content and extra ingredients.

Becoming a Master Chocolatier

You can pursue your chocolate obsession as a chocolate maker, a culinary pastry chef, a confectioner or Master Chocolatier. A chocolate maker might be self-taught, but a culinary chef or Master Chocolatier will require specialized training.

To become a pastry chef, one will need extensive training at one of the many Culinary Institutes around the world. Any university that offers culinary programs or a specialty school will normally have a pastry program. As a pastry chef you will gain knowledge of the entire industry including baking, chocolate making and confections. Some schools offer specialties in chocolate but most are broad based.

Many of the institutions offer programs that run from bachelors degrees in Applied Science to first level certificates of knowledge. Different opportunities will open for those who hold a degree as a Pastry chef. A pastry chef can learn to specialize in chocolate or choose to branch out into other culinary avenues, such as baked goods.

The last phase of learning the skill of chocolate making is to become a Chocolatier. Chocolatiers specialize in chocolate, as well as dishes that have chocolate as one of the main ingredients. Once you achieve this level you will be able to deal with chocolate in all forms!

There are only a handful of schools in the world that focus only on the art of making chocolate. Once you attend such a school you will graduate as a master chocolatier. These schools area scattered all over the world, including Belgium and South Africa. These programs teach every aspect of chocolate making and the chocolate business. In the US, the Arts Institutes of America and American Culinary Institute have pastry chef programs where chocolate making is part of the curriculum.

 

The Hotel industry is expanding with every passing day due to the boom in leisure and corporate tourism. Frequency of travel has increased over the past decade, leading the hotels to compete in every manner to attract more guests and give them a comfortable stay. Hoteliers know the fact that if they want their customers to choose them over the competitors they have to provide something extra to the guests. Most important one is by offering the quality and right hotel amenities to the guests at suitable rates. If you want your hotel to succeed than it should keep itself ahead in the current trends which will ensure better occupancy rates.

You can start on the hotel amenities services by providing the basic things and supplies like toiletries, towels, hangers, etc. These basic hotel supplies are targeted towards providing the guests ultimate convenience and feel at home factor. However the definition of basic hotel supplies differs on the hotel class and type. The Hotel industry is a highly competitive industry and competes with one another for business. Thus the hotel amenities and supplies that they provide are part of the competition which concerns things like- how many amenities are being offered, its types and the quality and design of the products.

Guests’ expectations of such supplies are affected by the type of hotel and its sophistication level. Hangers, ice boxes, absorbent towels, exquisite bed linens, wooden luggage racks, etc these are basic hotel supplies for mid level hotels. The main aim for providing such extra luxury items is to increase the occupancy rates of the hotel rooms. As the level of the hotel goes up, so does the quality and number of hotel supplies and amenities.

Hotels and resorts that are 5-star and above provide a high level of guest services and amenities to attract and sustain high-end guests. For instance- shaving kits, medical kits, microfiber Bathrobe and towels, shaving mirrors with fog-free feature, in-room lockers, refrigerators, mini bar, etc are just some examples of high quality hotel supplies of such luxury hotels and resorts. Not only do such additional amenities attract new guests but they also increase the occupancy rates.

Guests give rating’s for the hotel supplies and guest complementaries they utilize based on there quality and there convenience. When an hotelier is in the process of deciding which hotel amenities they would provide, a number of factors would influence the decision like- the budget, expectations of their guests, type of guests they receive, etc. The value and importance of hotel supplies cannot be overlooked as they have direct Affect on the occupancy rates.

We are living in a world surrounded by numerous things that are either related to the technology, the latest gadgets or the latest fashion. And Fashion today has made its significance felt in almost all sectors of life. Fashion can be termed into two groups: One group which follows fashion trends and adopts them and the other group who create fashion and style statements for the others to follow them. It can also be extended to another set of people who rarely have anything to do with fashion trends but yet follow their own style to create their own unique personality; adding one more style to the fashion world.

Fashion is not just about cosmetics and make up or the hair-do. It is a sense of creating the charisma of looking good in anything you wear and this magic is created with the right kind of accessories going along with the foot wear and the clothes, making up a pleasant picture to view. Many a times, people who do not afford to buy expensive clothes look their best in their casual wear, just by presenting themselves in that manner of sophistication and creating an aura around them with the confidence of looking good.

There are myriad forms of fashion, and trends keep on changing with the seasons. From the early 60s and 70s to the present millennium, there has been an immense change in the forms, looks and thoughts about fashion trends.

In India, much of fashion has been influenced by the Hindi Film Industry, popularly called Bollywood. The trends that have changed through time can be fairly seen in the movies made during the 60s and 70s and how they have evolved in various forms bringing about a style that can be followed by the general public. People have aped the west from very early times and this was no exception. The clothes made in the 60s and 70s were very much influenced by the western countries and given a traditional touch. The Bell Bottoms, scarves and the hair style was very much prevalent in those days as an icon of style. Later in the 80s and 90s, Fashion world sizzled like never before. There was a craving by the people to look different, stylish and modern and this could be seen in their outlook towards their outfit, new styles of hair, makeup, accessories like purses, earrings, necklaces, matching footwear etc.

People were conscious about each and every new thing that was marketed and they copied the styles from their Bollywood idols. Bollywood started as a platform for theatre artistes and went on to become a commercial entry to the youths and aspirants for a career in the film and fashion industry. This gave the youth of today to emphasize on the fashion world. Art and music have become an inseparable thing of the past and so it is deeply rooted in the present as well with more features and facilities.

Today fashion, art, music, designers, dance etc all have a place in the industry and people can choose to take up anything related to this industry as their profession too. Art and music have long been implemented in the school co-curricular activities and the Higher colleges are now offering various courses for better professionalism in these areas. There are also various acting schools and the small screen i.e., the television has opened up avenues in bringing out the talent in the young minds through numerous platforms of music and dance. This is the innovation of the millennium in creating jobs and work in the fashion industry. The trends that we see are brought about by the fashion houses that have regular seasons to showcase their invention, many of which are popularized in FTV, Zee Trendz and TLC channels. We can also get a glimpse of the stylish outfits through these shows that the models present. Today, Modelling is also one of the platforms for an entry into the world of fashion.

In the yester years, fashion was constrained only to the actors in the film or those that were bold enough to carry themselves in the public that they were considered fashionable. Others just wooed them behind close doors. Slowly when times began changing, we could see the women showing off their styles in the traditional saree with an embroidered blouse and a different neck style. Then we saw the saree being draped in various styles like the Bengali style or the Gujarati style etc. The women were liberating their choice of freedom and it could be seen in their appearances with a high heeled slipper or the handbag she carried or the way she held her saree or the hair and the makeup she wore. All these changes brought about the invention of churidhars and then the salwar kameez and finally the fashion of dresses was out in the open. Women accepted to the fact that there was nothing wrong in looking good and the men of course, loved to see the attractive side of women and fantasized the idea over their spouses.

This change in attitude of the public was very well taken by the fashionistas and a huge market was created to meet the demands of the public. Today fashion creates a new look with distinct style for a particular person and keeps oneself updated with the latest trends seen in the market. This industry is popular for its glamour as well as the mixture of Indian tradition and culture put into the designer wear that the models showcase.

People love to experiment different textures of materials used in the outfits and so the designers give them a wide collection of dresses using all kinds of clothes. There is the traditional Khadi and silk combination that is presently creating waves seen in both men’s and women’s wear. Then we have the embroidery work in zardosi, swarovski studded tops and lehangas and multi stoned work in bridal collection sarees etc. Then the most sought materials like cotton, polyster, chiffon, crush materials used in varied iconoclastic designs and styles.

Always there is a hope for the designers that the youth want a change in the fashion and are glad to keep up the trend with a fusion of Indian and western mix of fashionable wear. Also the youth of today are very practical in their sense of styling for a particular occasion. Be it a party or for a marriage or the casual look, they want the best and they believe in looking the best. And to achieve this, people go one step ahead in ensuring that they have everything in their wardrobe for any kind of occasion.

Apart from the stylish clothes and fashion that is currently popular people want to try something that goes along with their outlook. So the market started towards the very own friend of a woman- The Hand Bag or the Purse. The Fresh look of a purse with magnificent colours and its stylish features like the chain handle or the jazzy zips with numerous pockets in different shapes attracted the public like never before. And with the increasing demand of the prices of branded purses, it became a must for every woman to complete her shopping. So did the other accessories line up by creating a place for themselves in the market. Just a few to quote, the earring and necklaces, the various Belts, hand bracelets and brooch, the stiletto and its wonderful embroidered, party wear slippers along with its brotherly high rugged shoes giving a perfect cowboy look etc.

Fashion has always been a very interesting topic for all women and now the trend has even challenged the men to compete for a more appealing look for a remarkable future in the world of Fashion to make it a full fledged acceptable thing for all genre of people.

Kiriti C Chavadi

Bangalore

 

Marketing research “The systematic gathering, recording and analyzing data about problems relating to the marketing of goods and services”.

Market research on the other hand, is only a part of marketing research that covers a few of aspects of marketing. It is only the sub function of marketing research ‘some companies use “market research” for describing research into markets the size geographical distribution incomes, and so on. However it fails to cover the idea of research into the effects of marketing efforts on markets, for which the term marketing research is the accurate. Elements of marketing research.

1. Market Research. It covers the aspects regarding size and nature of the market including export markets dividing the consumers in terms, of their age, sex, income (market segmentation), economic aspects of marketing etc.

2. Sales Research. This relates to the problem regional variations in sales fixing sales territories, measurement of the effectiveness of salesman, evaluation of sales methods and incentives, etc.

3. Product Research. This relates to the analysis of strengths and or weakness of existing product testing problems relating to diversification, simplification, trading up and trading down (all product line decisions), etc.

4. Packaging Research. In essence, it is a part of product research. But the recent development in packaging and its contribution in the advertising made it to occupy an independent position. This necessitates a separate study concerning the aspects of package to know its impact and response in the market.

5. Advertising Research. It undertakes a study relating to the preparation of advertisement copy (copy research), media to be used (media research) and measurement of advertising effectiveness.

6. Business Economic Research. Problems relating to input output analysis, forecasting, price and profit analysis, and preparation of break -even charts are the main fields of the research.

7. Export Marketing Research. This research is intended to study the export potentials of the product. In such cases any or all kinds of research mentioned above become necessary.

The Ndebele wedding is celebrated in three stages, this can take several years. The first stage is Labola for the bride; this is paid in instalments of both money and livestock. The second stage is a two-week sequestration of the bride during which time other women teach the bride how to be a good wife and the third stage is completed when the bride has her first child.

The groom to be sends a letter to the bride’s family to request a date for the Labola negotiation. He then has to purchase a sheep; some blankets, a broom and a few clothes for the girl’s family. The grooms parents then visit the brides parents and pay the Labola, after this they take the girl to the boys family to get to know him and his family.

Preparation for the wedding day will include writing up a guest list and sending out of the invitations, this happen two weeks before the wedding day. Food is bought and cooked the traditional way this will include ‘mielie pap’ (traditional maize meal) meat and salads, fruit, sweets and cake are served as dessert on the day.

The official ceremony will take place in a church, family members will be present for this so that they can witness the couple saying their wedding vows and the placing of rings on each others fingers. After the church ceremony the couple will change into traditional clothes and go with the guests to the girls home to eat. After they have finished to eat the couple will sit at a table, which has been especially decorated for them. Everyone present will talk to the couple and give them gifts.

The groom will then thank the guests where after they will go to his home. The oldest boy in the family will be there together with all the parents and grand-parents to give the girl an Ndebele name.

 

Among the paradise of islands that is the Philippines, among the choices of escapes around the world, and among all the chains of resorts and hotels all over the globe, there exists a hidden secret. This is a secret so coveted, 99% of the inhabitants of the Philippines doesn’t even know its there: the private resort Amanpulo.

The private island is a so luxurious, decadent and extravagant, it is on a class of tourist destinations of its own.

Owned by the AmanResorts luxury group, Amanpulo bears its parents’ name “aman” meaning peace. The word “pulo” on the other hand is the native Filipino word for “island”. Amanresorts is only composed of 15 or so luxury spots in different places, so Amanpulo is no less lavish and exciting as it other more well-known cousins. Amanpulo just opened in the Pamalican Island of Palawan, in the Eastern archipelago of the Philippines. Getting there and leaving there is by private jet, though one can assure you leaving paradise would be pretty hard. Well, at least the jet ride is seamless and comfortable.

Whats more, since this is a private island, getting in is no easy feat. One must know the appropriate channels and get in the right time to obtain a reservation. For a summer vacation in a year or two. One may not know this, but one of the sole entries in the book Places to See Before You Die for the Philippines is Amanpulo, so it is definitely worth the wait.

In Amanpulo, it is said that wide, powdery-white beaches are the wonder, compounded by the seascape proved majestic by the view of nearby Manamoc Island. Sometimes, when visitors stare out at Manamoc form the footprinted shorelines, do they ever wonder whats its like to be on that island paradise, then find themselves on the exact same fantasy in reality? The Aman gives no less.

The Beach Club of course, is said to be Amanpulo’s pride and joy. The relaxing wide are is spread with soft decks and pillows, with walkways leading to the pristine pools or the magnificent beach. The beach is the best choice by morning, while subtly lit pools are the choice place to unwind in romantic nights.

In addition, the place simply called The Restaurant serves both Filipino and international cuisines. And from the sound of the reviews, The Restaurant is on a league of its own, a throwback to when hotel restaurants were the best places to dine in. Serving fresh greens form its own vegetable and herb garden, The Restaurant will settle everyone’s worries over what’s good to eat because well, everything is good to eat.

Beach side casitas, nipa hut inspired but very luxurious lodges, are spaced very wide apart. This gives the impression of having your own beach paradise because you can choose to rarely see other guests. The views are fantastic, and a camera is a must. Maybe an underwater camera is a must too, since only 300m form the shore, a reef so full of color and life awaits anyone.

Coming clean, this is not an advertising ad for Amanpulo or the Aman chain of resorts. This is just a simple yearning to go there, one of the best places on earth unabashedly called paradise by those who have seen it. To taste the secret.

Local Philippines is your one-stop source of information about the Philippines with its fascinating travel destinations, colorful festivals and premier attractions.

The four major Fashion Weeks are held semi-annually and internationally. Each one of the Fashion Weeks has a unique style, all their own.

In 1943, New York held the first Fashion Week, and has been the quintessential idea of fashion week ever since. Now known as the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week, it does seem to be the most commercialized of the big fashion shows, in that the clothes are created ready-for-market. Its styles and designs are arguably a lot ‘safer’ than the other three locations.

In 1984, London jumped on the fashion train and recently has been making a splash with its high-end couture. London Fashion Week has not yet reached the commercial level of New York and is less likely to follow fashion trends. Rather, each London fashion house showcases its unique take on fashion-forward concepts, and their collections are still market ready. The heavy hitters in London like Richard Nicholl, Christopher Kane and Giles Deacon are all amazing designers who produce commercially viable collections that would stand out at any of the fashion shows around the world.

Milan’s version of the week was established in 1958 and is part of the Big Four internationally. It is owned by a nonprofit association which disciplines, coordinates and promotes the development of Italian Fashion and is responsible for hosting the fashion events and shows of Milan called Camera Nazionale della Moda Italiana. The original Italian Fashion Week was not held in Milan, instead it was held in Florence at the hands of Giovan Battista Giorgini. He held the first “fashion parade” in the living room of his house “Villa Torrigiani”. Then the Italian week later moved to Rome, and then Milan where it is currently held in haute style today.

Paris is known as the fashion capital of the world, and holds the finale position in the fashion show tour. Paris Fashion Week brings each season’s chaotic schedule of international fashion weeks to an end. High-end French designers include: Christian Dior, Coco Chanel, and Louis Vuitton along with many more stunningly talented designers. Typically, Paris has some of the most extravagant shows, especially with Paris Couture Week.

No matter which of the Big Four is your favorite, each week is sure to dazzle its audience with new haute couture designs year after year. In addition to haute couture trends, innovative fashion designs have also been making a big impact, especially in New York, the only location that allows a fashion school to feature its students’ designs, which are often very fresh and inspirational. It is definitely important to keep up with the latest runway styles from all four weeks to stay on top of upcoming trends for the next season.

According to the dictionary, the avant-garde current it is an artistic current which fights against the already known and accepted forms and traditions, suggesting a revolutionary formula. In other words, this avant-garde may be regarded as an artistic innovative movement, which came out from a spirit of negation and revolt against certain traditionalism. It has become a synonym of innovation, progress and rebellion.

In fashion, the avant-garde style is defined through its personality. Many designers have been asked to define this style and they all added a certain term to define it: sophisticated, mysterious, intimidating, intriguing, striking.The accessories have to be very modern, unusual, but elegant. All clothes should be matched with hats, belts or shoes in the most unusual shapes.

The models may intimidate because what they wear is beyond a normal image. Avant-garde fashion means a little bit of theatre. Most of the time, the clothes cannot be worn in the street because they belong to a flamboyant style. They are very innovative and can be a bit shocking. Somehow, this style does not refer only to fashion. It means a mixture between fashion and art.The avant-garde fashion teaches women to have a certain attitude.

Avant-garde clothes mean unusual ones, which catch the eye and does not let you fade in the crowd. In fact, when we discuss about avant-garde fashion, we should not talk only about clothes. In the end, the result of the avant-garde has to be a whole form. For this reason, the make-up has to go hand in hand with the clothes.

The make-up has to express something new, unexpected, and even exotic. A niche for the avant-garde style in fashion was connected to men and the items designed especially for them.

At the beginning, women were the perfect models to underline these innovative ideas. Little by little, the designers extended upon men. First of all, they wanted to surprise through their clothes, later on every little detail mattered. One example may be the boots designed especially for them. A mixture of styles, the first tendency towards rejection and then the craziness of wearing them are some of the reactions encountered.

If you are one of the legions of people who have acquired, or are about to obtain a new pet snake, then you are also about to have a rewarding experience. Snakes have a lot to teach us. A properly maintained terrarium can be a work of art – many are prominently displayed in homes – so long as the snake keeper keeps some essential information in mind:

· Be sure you give your snake enough heat – that means enough for the snake, not you. A snake is best kept at warmer, summer temperatures of 85 – 100 degrees F, unless being cooled for hibernation. Temperate zone species may tolerate a 30 degree drop in temperature at night, but tropical species rarely do well with such fluctuations.

· Never, ever use your snake to scare somebody! Many people are afraid of snakes, some pathologically so. Using a snake to scare a person is irresponsible of you, may cause injury to another person, and is traumatic for the snake.

· Be sure to feed your snake an adequate diet at appropriate intervals. Snakes under 3 feet in length should generally be fed prey about the size of an adult mouse once or twice a week. Larger snakes take more or larger prey at less frequent intervals. Truly large snakes may eat only once per year, but these are not snakes for novices.

· Do not handle snakes after feeding, or until they have digested their meals. If a snake is handled too soon after eating, it is often likely to regurgitate the meal, and may refuse to feed for many days afterward.

· Snakes must shed their skins, but they do much better if you do not help them. If the snake has been fed and watered well, it will grow, and the old skin is carefully broken by the snake and shed in one piece. If a snake sheds in patches, it may be dehydrated or have a nutritional disorder.

· Do your homework! Buying a snake is not the same as knowing how to care for it properly. It is your responsibility to learn about your snake and any special needs it will have in captivity. For example, unless you carefully teach your snake otherwise, many have specialized diets: garter snakes eat fish and frogs, hognose snakes eat toads, and corn snakes eat small rodents and eggs.

· Get a snake veterinarian lined up now. Snakes have a slower metabolism than us mammals, so they may manifest symptoms long after contracting an illness. Waiting to find a qualified vet until the snake is ill may be too late.

· Clean the snake’s cage as it becomes dirty – don’t merely wait for Saturday morning. Only use appropriate disinfectants for a snake cage. You may use rubbing alcohol, soap, and specialty products available at your pet shop. Do not use chlorine bleaches or industrial cleansers such as Ajax or Comet, because their residues are often toxic to snakes. Lysol is particularly dangerous.

· Always wash your hands well with soap and water after handling your snake or the cage accessories. Snakes, like most animals, may harbor dangerous bacteria such as Salmonella.

· Okay, now go watch your snake and have some fun!